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The dynasties of Turkic and Afghan origin that spoke Persian language and managed India under their control from India from 1210 to 1526 were the Delhi Sultanate. The majority of these dynasties ruled from Delhi thus named Delhi Sultanate. This dynasty included five major dynasties which ruled India right from 1206 to 1526.The five major dynasties were:
After the rule of over 300 years, the Delhi Sultanate was overtaken by the Mughals and thus the control of India came into their hands.
This article deals with the most important Central Departments and the officers involved under the Delhi Sultanate.
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The administration system of the Delhi Sultanate were governed and directed by the Quranic injunctions. The empire considered the Quranic law as the supreme law of the empire. The supreme sovereign ruler according to the Islamic theory of sovereignty was the Caliph. All the Muslim kings throughout the world were his subordinates. During the great Sultanate period, the power of the Caliph was at its zenith.
The Sultanate government was a centralized one inspite of the fact that it had the original democratic nature of an Islamic State. The Sultans were in a way forced to make the Government centralized one because during their ruling period the all the Hindu chiefs were not suppressed altogether. Some of them were always rebellious. The Sultans feared the repeated dander of Mongol invasion and thus were compelled to keep a very large army and a centralized government system.
The Sultan had to keep quite a good number of ministries in his administration. The members of these ministries were varied from time to time. The important departments along with their main function/duty are tabulated below:
|Name of the Central Department||Function of the Department|
|Diwan-i-Risalat||Department of appeals|
|Diwan-i-arz||Department of Military|
|Diwan-i-Ishtiaq||Department of pensions|
|Diwan-i-Mustakhraj||Department of arrears|
|Diwan-i-kohi||Department of agriculture|
|Diwan-i-insha||Department of correspondence|
|Diwan-i-Bandagan||Department of slaves|
|Diwan-i-Qaza-i-Mamalik||Department of justice|
|Diwan-i-Khairat||Department of charity|
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The main officers of the Delhi Sultanate at Central Level who managed the different ministries and the functions of the Sultanate are given below:
|Officer at the Central level||The duty performed by the officer|
|Wazir||Wazir was the Chief Minister and in charge of revenue and finances.|
|Ariz-i-Mumalik||Head of military department|
|Qazi||The Legal Officer- dispensing Sharia law|
|Wakil-i-dar||Controller of Royal household|
|Barid-i-Mumalik||Head of state news agency|
|Amir-i-majlis||Officer in charge of Royal feasts & festivals|
|Majlis-i-am||Council of friends and officers consulted on important affairs of the state|
|Dahir-i-mumalik||Head of Royal correspondence|
|Naib wazir||Deputy Minister|
|Amir-i-hazib||Officer in charge of the Royal court|
|Sadr-us-sudur||Dealt with religious matters and endowments|
|Sadr-i-jahan||Officers in charge of religious matters and endowments|
|Shahna-i-pil||Superintendent of Royal Elephants|
|Amir-i-bahr||Officer in charge of police & transport naval port|
|Qazi-ul-kazat||Head of chief judicial department|
|Amir-i-Akhur||Officer commanding Royal Horses|
The officers of the Delhi Sultanate at the Provincial Level and their main duties/functions are given below:
|Officer at the Provincial level||The duty performed by the officer|
|Mukti or Wali||Responsible for law and order and collection of taxes in their iqtas (province)|
|Nazir or Wakuf||Officials responsible for collecting revenue in the provinces|
|Sahib-i-diwan||Maintained accounts of the provinces and sent them to central administration|
|Shiqdar||Officer in charge of land measuring a shiq|
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