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# GATE 2017 Biotechnology (BT) Syllabus

Last Updated - October 23, 2016

GATE 2017 is held every year for candidates seeking admission to postgraduate engineering programs. It will be conducted in online mode as a Computer Based Test. The exam will have multiple choice questions and candidates will be given 3 hours to complete the exam.

There will be total 65 questions and a candidate can score maximum 100 marks in the exam. No marks will be deducted for any wrong answer. GATE 2017 will be held in 2 shifts (Morning and Afternoon).

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It is very important for a candidate to know the GATE 2017 Exam Pattern so that he or she can know the type and number of questions asked in the exam.

### GATE 2017 Biotechnology Syllabus

GATE 2017 for Biotechnology program will have question from topics such as Engineering Mathematics, Biotechnology, Recombinant DNA Technology, Plant and Animal Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering and Process Biotechnology.

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#### Section. 1 Engineering Mathematics

TopicsSub-Topics
Linear AlgebraMatrices and determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors
CalculusLimit, continuity and differentiability, Partial derivatives, Maxima and minima, Sequences and series, Test for convergence, Fourier series
Differential EquationsLinear and nonlinear first order ODEs, higher order ODEs with constant coefficients, Cauchy's and Euler's equations, Laplace transforms, PDE- Laplace, heat and wave equations
Probability and StatisticsMean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Poisson, normal and binomial distributions, Correlation and regression analysis
Numerical MethodsSolution of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations, Integration of trapezoidal and Simpson's rule, Single and multistep methods for differential equation

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#### Section. 2 Biotechnology

TopicsSub-Topics
MicrobiologyProkaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure; Microbial nutrition, growth and control; Microbial metabolism (aerobic and anaerobic respiration, photosynthesis); Nitrogen fixation; Chemical basis of mutations and mutagens; Microbial genetics (plasmids, transformation, transduction, conjugation); Microbial diversity and characteristic features; Viruses.
BiochemistryBiomolecules and their conformation; Weak inter-molecular interactions in bio-macromolecules; Chemical and functional nature of enzymes; Kinetics of single substrate and bi-substrate enzyme catalyzed reactions; Bioenergetics; Metabolism (Glycolysis, TCA and Oxidative phosphorylation); Membrane transport and pumps; Cell cycle and cell growth control; Cell signaling and signal transduction.
Molecular Biology and GeneticsMolecular structure of genes and chromosomes; DNA replication and control; Transcription and its control; Translational processes; Regulatory controls in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; Mendelian inheritance; Gene interaction; Complementation; Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping; Extra-chromosomal inheritance; Chromosomal variation; Population genetics; Transposable elements, Molecular basis of genetic diseases and applications.
Analytical TechniquesPrinciples of microscopy-light, electron, fluorescent and confocal; Centrifugation- high speed and ultra; Principles of spectroscopy-UV, visible, CD, IR, FTIR, Raman, MS,NMR; Principles of chromatography- ion exchange, gel filtration, hydrophobic interaction, affinity, GC,HPLC, FPLC; Electrophoresis; Microarray
ImmunologyThe origin of immunology; Inherent immunity; Humoral and cell mediated immunity; Primary and secondary lymphoid organ; Antigen; B and T cells and Macrophages; Major histocompatibility complex (MHC); Antigen processing and presentation; Synthesis of antibody and secretion; Molecular basis of antibody diversity; Polyclonal and monoclonal antibody; Complement; Antigen-antibody reaction; Regulation of immune response; Immune tolerance; Hyper sensitivity; Autoimmunity; Graft versus host reaction.
BioinformaticsMajor Bioinformatics resources (NCBI, EBI, ExPASy); Sequence and structure databases; Sequence analysis (Bio-molecular sequence file formats, scoring matrices, sequence alignment, phylogeny); Genomics and Proteomics (Large scale genome sequencing strategies; Comparative genomics; Understanding DNA microarrays and protein arrays); Molecular modeling and simulations (basic concepts including concept of force fields)

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#### Section. 3 Recombinant DNA Technology

Restriction and modification enzymes; Vectors: plasmid, bacteriophage and other viral vectors, cosmids, Ti plasmid, yeast artificial chromosome; cDNA and genomic DNA library; Gene isolation; Gene cloning; Expression of cloned gene; Transposons and gene targeting; DNA labeling; DNA sequencing; Polymerase chain reactions; DNA fingerprinting; Southern and northern blotting; In- situ hybridization; RAPD; RFLP; Site-directed mutagenesis; Gene transfer technologies; Gene therapy.

#### Section. 4 Plant and Animal Biotechnology

• Totipotency Regeneration of plants; Plant growth regulators and elicitors; Tissue culture and Cell suspension culture system: methodology, kinetics of growth and, nutrient optimization; Production of secondary metabolites by plant suspension cultures; Hairy root culture; transgenic plants; Plant products of industrial importance Animal cell culture; media composition and growth conditions;
• Animal cell and tissue preservation; Anchorage and non-anchorage dependent cell culture; Kinetics of cell growth; Micro & macro-carrier culture; Hybridoma technology; Stem cell technology; Animal cloning; Transgenic animals
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#### Section. 5 Bioprocess Engineering and Process Biotechnology

• Chemical engineering principles applied to biological system, Principle of reactor design, ideal and non-ideal multiphase bioreactors, mass and heat transfer
• Rheology of fermentation fluids, Aeration and agitation; Media formulation and optimization; Kinetics of microbial growth, substrate utilization and product formation; Sterilization of air and media; Batch, fed-batch and continuous processes; various types of microbial and enzyme reactors; Instrumentation control and optimization; Unit operations in solid-liquid separation and liquid-liquid extraction; Process scale-up, economics and feasibility analysis
• Engineering principle of bioprocessing- Upstream production and downstream; Bioprocess design and development from lab to industrial scale; Microbial, animal and plant cell culture platforms; Production of biomass and primary/secondary metabolites; Biofuels, Bio-plastics, industrial enzymes, antibiotics; Large scale production and purification of recombinant proteins; Industrial application of chromatographic and membrane based bio-separation methods; Immobilization of biocatalysts (enzymes and cells) for bioconversion processes; Bioremediation-Aerobic and anaerobic processes for stabilization of solid / liquid wastes

### GATE 2017 Previous Year Papers for Biotechnology

It is very important for a candidate to practice GATE 2017 Previous Year Papers for Biotechnology so that they can idea regarding the type of questions asked in the exam. It also helps in improving the speed of the candidate. The candidate must practice using a stop watch to improve the speed. Take a note of the mistakes done and try not to repeat them again.

### Syllabus Of Other Papers

PaperCodePaperCode
Aerospace EngineeringAEMechanical EngineeringME
Agricultural EngineeringAGMetallurgical EngineeringMT
Civil EngineeringCEMining EngineeringMN
Chemical EngineeringCHPetroleum EngineeringPE
Computer Science and Information TechnologyCSProduction and Industrial EngineeringPI
Electronics and CommunicationECTextile Engineering and Fibre ScienceTF
Electrical EngineeringEEEngineering SciencesXE
Instrumentation EngineeringIN

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