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KMAT Exam – Preparation Tips for Logical Reasoning

Last Updated - July 25, 2017

Karnataka Management Aptitude Test (KMAT) is a state level management entrance test. It is organised by Karnataka Private Post Graduate Colleges Association (KPPGCA).

KMAT Exam has 4 sections namely Verbal Ability & Reading Comprehension, Logical & Abstract Reasoning and Quantitative Ability.  Each section tests a particular skill of a candidate.

Logical and Abstract Reasoning:

This is the first section in KMAT 2017. Listed below are the skills that are tested in a candidate:

  • Logical, analytical and reasoning skills of a candidate.
  • Abstract reasoning section test thinking ability of an individual.

KMAT Syllabus - Important Topics in LR & Abstract Reasoning

  • Blood Relations
  • Syllogism/ Venn Diagram
  • Propositions
  • Data Arrangement
  • Puzzles
  • Assumptions & Statements
  • Analogy questions

Read More  KMAT Syllabus


KMAT Exam Pattern – Logical Reasoning and Abstract Reasoning

The exam pattern is defined by the conducting body i.e. KPPGCA. The exam is conducted in offline mode with questions of objective type. Tabulated below are highlights of LR and Abstract section in KMAT:

No. of Questions40
Nature of QuestionsObjective (MCQs)
Marking Scheme+1 for correct answer
Negative MarkingNo
Sectional Time LimitNo

Read More  KMAT Exam Pattern


Basic Preparation Tips and Tricks to crack the section:

Although there is no clear-cut definition of syllabus given by KPPGCA, but on the basis of the analysis of previous year exams, we have been able to identify some of the important topics. The following topics are important for KMAT 2018 exam:

Group A: Analogy Type Questions

  • Try to identify the relationship shown between the two entities in comparison.
  • Apply comparison in order to draw similarity

Types of Analogy:

Type 1: Analogy pair: In these types of questions a relationship is given between a pair; first element of second pair is given and the second element has to be identified.

Example: 1) Oasis: Sand ∷ Island: ?

a) River

b) Sea

c) Water

d) Waves

Answer: C

Type 2: Simple analogy: A simple relationship is given and the relationship has to be identified in the second element.

Example: 1) Sweet is to Chocolate as Book is to….?

a) Dictionary

b) Library

c) Encyclopaedia

d) Atlas

Answer: C

Type 3: Multiple word analogy: In this type of questions three types of elements are given instead of two elements.

Example: 1) Music: Guitar: Performer

a) Dance: Tune: Instrument

b) Food: Recipe: Cook

c) Patient: Medicine: Doctor

d) Trick: Rope: Acrobat.

Answer: D

Type 4: Number based analogy:

Example 4.1: Completing analogy pair: 25: 37 ∷ 49: ?

a) 41

b) 56

c) 60

d) 65

Answer: D

Example 4.2: Choosing the analogy pair: 7: 24
a) 30: 100

b) 23: 72

c) 19: 58

d) 11: 43

Answer: 72

Example 4.3: Multiple number analogy: (9, 15, 21)

a) (10, 14, 21)

b) (7, 21, 28)

c) (5,10,25)

d) (4, 8, 12)

Answer: D

Type 5: Alphabet based analogy: Two words that are group of random letters are related to each other in some way. We’re supposed to complete the analogous pair based on that relationship.

Example: 1) FJUL: BOQQ LHRX: ?
a) BKPR

b) MNCC

c) HRYY

d) HMNC

Answer: D

Type 6: Mixed analogy: A mixture of alphabet and numbers:

Example: 1) . Question
a) 2

b) 3

c) 23/7

d) 4

Answer: B

Group B: Puzzles

  • Know the common puzzles structure.
  • Plan to do puzzles in a group so you are motivated to solve them.
  • Start drawing circle, rows, multiple rows, etc. as given in the question.
  • Do not read the whole puzzles in one go.
  • Keep reading and arranging puzzles.
  • Use tables
  • Look for indirect clues.
  • Check for any square, cubes and mathematical relations.
  • Check whether any addition, substation, multiplication and division.
  • Use your own logic.

Examples:

Directions: Study the following information carefully and answer the questions given below:

  • Seven people N, K, T, B, M, W and R have their weekly offs on different days of the week, i.e. Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday and Saturday, not necessarily in that order. Each of them has a liking for different cuisine, i.e. Indian, Italian, Mexican, Chinese, Spanish, Continental and Thai, not necessarily in that order.
  • K likes Thai food and gets his weekly off on Thursday. B likes Italian food and does not have off on Sunday.
  • M has weekly off on Saturday and R has his weekly off on Tuesday.
  • W likes continental food whereas the one who has weekly off on Monday likes Mexican cuisine.
  • T does not like Spanish cuisine and has weekly off on Wednesday. The one who likes Indian food does not have a weekly off on Tuesday or Wednesday.

Questions:

1. Who has a weekly off on Friday?

1)T
2)R
3)W
4)Data inadequate
5)None of these

2. What cuisine does R like?

1)Continental
2)Indian
3)Italian
4)Spanish
5) None of these

3. On which day does N have weekly off?

1)Tuesday
2)Friday
3)Monday
4)Sunday
5) None of these

4. Who likes Chinese cuisine?

1)T
2)B
3)R
4)N
5) None of these

5. On which day does W have weekly off?

1)Monday
2)Sunday
3)Wednesday
4)Data
5) None of these

Group C: Syllogism

Identify the pattern of the syllogism questions.

Pattern 1: In this type, the pattern consists of a whole circle representing A, lying within the circle representing B.

syllogism

Following conclusions can be drawn from the above pattern:

  • Some B are A.
  • Some B are A.

Pattern 2: No A to B

The A and B are two independent entities and the A and B are not intersecting.

No cat is dog.

Pattern 3: Some A are B

There are some similarities between the two independent circles.

Figure

Following conclusions can be deducted from the above pattern:

  • Some A are not B
  • All A are B.
  • All B are A.
  • All A are B and All B are A.

Example: some dogs are cat.

Following conclusions can be deducted from the above pattern:

  • Some dogs are not cats.
  • All dogs are cats.
  • All cats are dogs.
  • All dogs are cats and All cats are dogs.

Pattern 4: A has some part which is not common to B.

Figure 2

Conclusions are as follows:

  • Some A are B.
  • No A is B.

Venn Diagrams:

Some rules to solve the Venn diagram:

  • Make a Venn diagram and go through all the statements given in the question one by one.
  • Work to draw Venn Diagrams for each statement.
  • Try to observe if there is any familiar concept or statement in the given syllogism.
  • Next step is finding out the conclusion.
  • Learn to draw a conclusion for each concept/statement.
  • Never memorize any statement or conclusion.
  • All you need is to understand the Concept

Sample questions Venn Diagram

Question

Which of the following diagrams indicates the best relation between Travelers, Train and Bus?

A.Figure

B.Figure

C.figure

Statement: “You are hereby appointed as a programmer with a probation period of one year and your confirmation.” – A line in an appointment letter.

Assumptions:

I. The performance of an individual generally is not known at the time of appointment offer.

II. Generally an individual try to prove his worth in the probation period

A. Only assumption I is implicit

B. Only assumption II is implicit

C. Either I or II is implicit

D. Neither I or II is implicit

E. Both I and II are implicit

Answer: Option E

Statement: It is desirable to put the child in school at the age of 5 or so.

Assumptions:

I. At that age the child reaches appropriate level of development and is ready to learn.

II. The schools do not admit children after six years of age

A. Only assumption I is implicit

B. Only assumption II is implicit

C. Either I or II is implicit

D. Neither I or II is implicit

E. Both I and II are implicit

Answer: Option A

Statement: "In order to bring punctuality in our office, we must provide conveyance allowance to our employees." - In charge of a company tells Personnel Manager.

Assumptions:

Conveyance allowance will not help in bringing punctuality

II. Discipline and reward should always go hand in hand.

A. Only assumption I is implicit

B. Only assumption II is implicit

C. Either I or II is implicit

D. Neither I nor II is implicit

E. Both I and II are implicit

Answer: option B

Statement: Unemployment allowance should be given to all unemployed Indian youth above 18 years of age.

Assumptions:

I. There are unemployed youth in India who needs monetary support.

II. The government has sufficient funds to provide allowance to all unemployed youth.

A. Only assumption I is implicit

B. Only assumption II is implicit

C. Either I or II is implicit

D. Neither I nor II is implicit

E. Both I and II are implicit

Answer: Option A

Statement: "If you trouble me, I will slap you." - A mother warns her child.

Assumptions:

I. With the warning, the child may stop troubling her.

II. All children are basically naughty.

A. Only assumption I is implicit

B. Only assumption II is implicit

C. Either I or II is implicit

D. Neither I nor II is implicit

E. Both I and II are implicit

Answer: A

Blood Relations sample questions:

1. Pointing to a photograph, a man said, "I have no brother or sister but that man's father is my father's son." Whose photograph was it ?

  1. His own
  2. His Son
  3. His Father
  4. His Grandfather

Answer: B

2. Pointing towards a person in a photograph, Anjali said, "He is the only son of the father of my sister's brother." How is that person is related to Anjali ?

  1. Anjali Father
  2. Anjali Mother
  3. Anjali Brother
  4. Maternal Uncle

Answer: C

3. Pointing to a man, a woman said, "His mother is the only daughter of my mother." How is the woman related to the man ?

  1. Mother
  2. Daughter
  3. Sister
  4. Grand Mother

Answer: A

5. Pointing to the photograph, Vipul said, "She is the daughter of my grandfather's only son." How is Vipul related to the girl in the photograph ?

  1. Mother
  2. Sister
  3. Cousin
  4. Grandmother

Answer: B

6. Looking at the portrait of a man, Harsh said, "His mother is the wife of my father's son. I have no brothers or sisters." At whose portrait was Harsh was looking ?

  1. His child
  2. His father
  3. His grandson
  4. His nephew

Answer: A

Sample questions Data arrangement with answers:

Question 1:

A. There are five friends.

B. They are standing in a row facing south.

C. Jayesh is to the immediate right to Alok.

D. Pramod is between Bhagat and Subodh.

E. Subodh is between Jayesh and Pramod.

1. Who is at the extreme left end?

  1. Jayesh
  2. Subodh
  3. Alok
  4. Bhagat

Answer: C

2. Who is in the Middle?

  1. Bhagat
  2. Subodh
  3. Jayesh
  4. Pramod

Answer: B

3. To find the answers to the above questions, which of the given statements can be dispensed with?

  1. None
  2. A only
  3. B only
  4. C only

Answer: B

Question 2) Seven friends Kamal, Manish, Rohit, Amit, Gaurav, Pritam and Priya are sitting in a circle. Kamal, Manish, Rohit, Amit, Pritam and Priya are sitting at equal distances from each other.
Rohit is sitting after two places right of Pritam, who is sitting one place right of Amit. Kamal forms an angle of 90 degrees from Gaurav and an angle of 120 degrees from Manish. Manish is just opposite Priya and is sitting on the left of Gaurav.

1. Who is the only person sitting between Rohit and Manish?

  1. Pritam
  2. Amit
  3. Gaurav
  4. Kamla

Answer: C

2. Gaurav is not sitting at equal distance from

  1. Manish and Pritam
  2. Amit and Kamla
  3. Rohit and Pritam
  4. All of the Above

Answer: D

Tips for Reasoning and Assumptions:

  • Assumption is always indefinite & positive.
  • Some words like only, each, any, every, all, question indicating word (why, these, what), Answer indicating words(therefor), Definitely, But, certainly exist in the assumption that assumption will always be explicit(False).
  • If words like some, to large extent, many, much, exist in the assumption that assumption will always be implicit(True).
  • If assumption is conveying the message of advertisement, notice, appeal that assumption will always be implicit(True).
  • If assumption is talking about the social welfare (positive), govt. policies that assumption will always be implicit(True).
  • If assumption talks about past & future that will always be explicit. (False).
  • Assumptions showing the word like suggestion, order, request that will always be implicit (true) . Restatement is never implicit.
  • Comparison is always wrong.

Tips to solve Blood Relation questions:

  • Assume yourself as the part of the question.
  • Break the information given into parts.
  • Do not assume the gender.
  • Draw diagrammatic representation of the information given.
  • Use symbols to make your diagram easy and quick.

Sample questions

1. In each of the following questions find out the alternative which will replace the question mark.

A. CUP : LIP :: BIRD : ?

  1.  
  2.  
  3.  
  4.  

Answer: Option D

B. Flow : River :: Stagnant : ?

  1.  
  2.  
  3.  
  4.  

Answer: Option C

C. Paw : Cat :: Hoof : ?

  1.  
  2.  
  3.  
  4.  

Answer: Option D

D. Ornithologist: Bird :: Archaeologist : ?

  1.  
  2.  
  3.  
  4.  

Answer: C

E. Peacock : India :: Bear : ?

  1.  
  2.  
  3.  
  4.  

Answer: C


Important books for preparation:

Books
Book namePublisherISBN
Logical Reasoning and Data Interpretation for the CAT Paperback – 27 Jun 2016Pearson Education; Fifth edition933257121X
Logical Reasoning for CAT Paperback – Jun 2015Cengage Learning India Private Limited;8131527999
How to Prepare for Logical Reasoning for the CATMcGraw Hill Education; Third edition9352602234
CAT 2017 Data Interpretation & Logical Reasoning9386309475G.K. Pub; Second edition

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