NEST 2017 PATTERN & SYLLABUS

NATIONAL LEVEL OFFLINE TEST

NEST Exam pattern consists of 5 sections – General Ability, Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics and Biology. It is compulsary to attempt the General section for all candidates. However, they will have the option to attempt any 3 out of the 4 subject or all the 4 sections since the selection is based on the marks obtained in the General Section and 3 other subject sections.

The exam duration is 3 hours and all the questions in MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions) format. NEST Exam will be conducted in pen and paper based mode. The question paper for NEST 2017 would be set in English only. NEST Syllabus would be based on the class 11^{th} and 12^{th} curriculum prescribed by NCERT.

NEST Exam | NEST 2017 Registration | NEST 2017 Admit Card | NEST Sample Papers |

NEST 2017 (National Entrance Screening Test) will be held on May 27, 2017. It will form the basis for selection to the Integrated 5 year M.Sc program offered by **NISER** (**National Institute of Science Education and Research), Bhubaneswar** and **University of Mumbai - Department of Atomic Energy Centre for Excellence in Basic Sciences (UM-DAE CBS) Mumbai . **.

Candidates can check below the important highlights of NEST Exam Pattern. There will be in total 5 sections in the NEST Exam.

Mode of Paper | Offline (Pen and Paper based test) |
---|---|

Duration of the Exam | 3 Hours |

No. of Sections | 5 |

Type of Questions | Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) |

Subjects | General, Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics and Biology |

Section Wise Marking Scheme | Section 1 – 30 marks; Section 2 to 5 – 50 Marks each |

Negative Marking | For specific questions in Subject Sections |

Medium of Question paper | English |

The questions that will come in the NEST Exam are designed to check the analytic and comprehension ability of the candidate in the particular subject.The candidates can have a look of last year examination paper which are available on the website to get a better idea of the exam pattern.

The sample paper for NEST are available on the official website.The questions are simple and based on the syllabus given on the website. Since it is a research based exam so the ability to analyze data is tested using the graphical representation and pictures or comprehensions.

**Syllabus for General Ability For NEST 2017:** There is no specific syllabus for General Ability Section. The section will contain random questions from History, Geography, Science, Mathematics, English, General Knowledge, and Current Affairs. There will be passage based scientific questions. General Ability section will also contain graph based questions.

**Biotechnology**

Applications of biotechnology and Biotechnology Principles of recombinant DNA technology.

**Humans and Environment**

Our natural resources - their uses and abuses, rainfall and Biodiversity and conservation, temperature with reference to natural resources, Environmental pollution and preventive measures , Soil.

**Genetics and Evolution**

Discovery of linkage, sex-determination, Evidences and theories of organic evolution , Fundamentals of genetics and evolution, Mitosis and meiosis compared and contrasted, Organization of the heredity material in chromosomes. Reduction division, Human genetics - human chromosomes, Significance of meiosis , Equational division , Mendel's laws of inheritance, sex-linked inheritance. Crossing-over, stage at which crossing-over occurs. Neurospora genetics. Role of mutations in evolution, Mutation - discovery, types of Mutation and Mutations in diploids , Elaboration of Mendel's laws of inheritance, Monohybrid or Dihybrid crosses., sex-linked inheritance.

**Biology of Animal systems**

Different vitamin compounds and their deficiencies ,Structure of alimentary canal and associated glands, digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones, Absorption of products of digestion, peristalsis, balanced diet , Biology of Animal systems Digestive System - Modes of nutrition, Circulation of blood coagulation ,Respiratory System - Gaseous exchange in animals. Structure of respiratory organs, gaseous transport, tissue respiration. Circulatory System - Open and closed systems, Microscopic structure of blood and blood vessels. Structures and working of heart Functions of blood and 1ymph, Distribution of arteries and veins, Blood groups, Osmoconformers and osmoregulators, Excretory System - Elimination of nitrogenous waste, Structure and function of kidney tubules , Nervous System - General account of brain, mechanism of breathing , spinal cord and nerves. Reflex actions (simple and conditioned) Arrangement of excretory organs , Sense organs (eye and ear).

Reproductive System - Sexual and asexual reproduction , T and B cell responses, General arrangement and functions of reproductive organs , principles of vaccination, immunology of AIDS , Immunology - Basics of immune mechanisms and diseases- active and passive immunity, Developmental Biology - Basic features of development in animals. Types of eggs, fertilization, amphibians, cleavage , Stem cells- definition, types, uses, advantages and disadvantages, induced pluripotent stem cells. Different hormones and their roles, binomial nomenclature , blastula, General classification of animal phyla up to classes (invertebrates) and upto sub-classes / order (vertebrates), Diversity of Animal Life — Principles of classification, General characters of fishes, reptiles, birds and mammals, antigen presentation, monoclonal antibodies and their uses

Immunology - T and B cell responses, Basics of immune mechanisms and diseases- active and passive immunity , monoclonal antibodies and their uses, antigen presentation, principles of vaccination ,immunology of AIDS.

**Ecology**

Food chains, pyramids of numbers and biomass, Biological equilibrium Basics of microbial systems, Inter-specific associations, Physical and biological factors influencing organisms, Bio-diversity , Flora and fauna, Ecosystems.

**Biology of Plant systems Anatomy and Physiology of Plants**

Plant breeding , Plant growth and development , Plant reproduction , Internal and external regulators of growth and development in plant , secondary growth and leaves ,Systematics - Principles of classical and new systematic , Internal structure of dicot and monocot leaves. Photosynthesis - history, importance, factors and mechanism, stomatal mechanism, transpiration and respiration. Comparative study of dicot and monocot anatomy , Internal structure of root, stem, Absorption and cell-water relations, transport of water and minerals, tropic and turgor movements. Significance of life-cycles with special reference to alternation of generations as exemplified in Selaginella, Funaria and Pinus (no structural details) , Plant hormones , Xylem and Phloem - their cell elements and functions ,Meristems , Binomial nomenclature, Familiarity with taxa , tissue culture.

**Physical Chemistry**

**Mole concept : **Mole fraction, molarity, molar masses, molality, , stoichiometry, percent composition Equivalent weight and normality, Calculations based on mole concept and stoichiometry of different reactions, Avogadro number and mole concept, Oxidation-reduction reactions.

**Atomic structure and chemical bonding:** Wave particle duality, Uncertainty principle , spectrum of hydrogen atom, quantum numbers , de Broglie hypothesis, Bohr model , shapes and energy of s, p and d orbitals, Orbitals and quantum numbers, filling of orbitals - Aufbau principle , Electronic configurations of elements (up to atomic number 36 ) , Hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals , VSEPR theory and shapes of molecules, Atomic orbital overlap and chemical bonds, Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule , ionic, covalent and coordinate bonds; bond parameters , Orbital energy diagrams for homo-nuclear diatomic species , Valence Bond Theory, Lewis structures , Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule , Hydrogen bond , Polarity in molecules, dipole moment (qualitative aspects), Molecular orbital theory of homo-nuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea).

**Measurements in chemistry:** Significant figures in calculations AND SI units for fundamental quantities.

**Gaseous and liquid states:**, Gas laws, root mean square and most probable velocities and their relation with temperature, Vapour pressure, ideal gas equation, real gases and deviation from ideality, Absolute scale of temperature , liquefaction of gases, Kinetic theory of gases; van der Waals equation , average, Law of partial pressures, Diffusion of gases.

**Thermodynamics**: Pressure-volume work, First law of thermodynamics , Thermodynamic states , criterion of spontaneity, Internal energy, work and heat, Enthalpy and enthalpy change, Second law of thermodynamics, Hess’s law, heat of - reaction, fusion and vapourization , entropy, free energy.

**Solid state: **Packing efficiency, Classification of solids, packing in fcc, bcc and hcp lattices , amorphous and crystalline solids, crystalline state, crystal lattice and (cubic), nearest neighbours, ionic radii , Imperfection in solids, point defects. Electrical and magnetic properties, Simple ionic compounds, band theory

**Chemical kinetics**: Order of reaction, Factors affecting rate of reaction – concentration, temperature (Arrhenius equation), rate constant , Rates of chemical reactions, First order and pseudo first order reactions , catalyst.

**Solutions**: Molecular weight determination from lowering of vapour pressure, Ideal and nonideal solutions ,Solution of solid and gas in liquid , Concentration of solution , . Osmosis – Osmotic pressure, reverse osmosis ,Vapour pressure of solution, Colligative properties Raoult's law. elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point. Abnormal molecular mass, vant Hoff factor

**Surface chemistry:** (a) Adsorption – chemisorptions ,Factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids and Physisorption , Adsorption isotherm. Catalysis – homogeneous and heterogeneous, Activity and selectivity , Enzyme catalysis.

(b) Colloidal state – preparation and properties of colloids ,Types, Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, Micelles ,electrophoresis, coagulation, Application of colloids.

**Inorganic Chemistry**

**Hydrogen**: Isolation, Isotopes, preparation , Hydrides – ionic, covalent and interstitial,Hydrogen peroxide – Preparation, structure, reactions, Properties of water and heavy water, uses of Hydrogen peroxide , Hydrogen as fuel cell , properties and uses of Hydrogen

**Classification of elements and periodicity in properties**: Diagonal relationship , classification of elements, Anomalous behaviours of Li, Be, B, C , Modern periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements – valence, oxidation state, valency, atomic/ionic radius, ionization energy, electron gain energy, electronegativity, chemical reactivity .

**s- Block elements (Alkali and alkaline earth elements)** – General characteristics and trends in properties of s-block elements:

(a) Group 1: reactions of alkali metals with emphasis on chemistry of Na and K and their compounds and their properties and Preparation, oxides, peroxides, , bicarbonates, chlorides and sulphates , hydroxides, carbonates and their Uses.

(b) Group 2: Properties, reactions and Preparation of alkaline earth metals with emphasis on the chemistry of Mg and Ca and their compounds - hydroxides, carbonates, bicarbonates, chlorides and sulphates oxides, peroxides and their uses.

**p- Block elements: **

General characteristics and trends in properties of P block elements

(a) Group 14, 15 and 16: Peroxide and ozone ,phosphorus chlorides, sulphur, nitrogen and phosphorus , Chemistry of carbon, Phosphines, Allotropy , ammonia, silicones, silicon tetrachloride and silicates and their Chemistry with oxides and oxyacids.

(b)Group 13: Chemistry of Boron and its compounds - borax, boric acid and diborane.

(c) Group 18: emphasis on chemistry of Xenon, properties and reactions of inert gases ,Isolation of inert gases

(d) Group 17: HX and oxyacids of halogens , Chemistry of halogens, Interhalogen compounds ,chemistry of chlorine in detail.

**d-Block elements:** (Mainly 3d elements) General characteristics and trends in properties , Catalytic properties, Preparation and properties of potassium dichromate and permanganate, colour (excluding the details of electronic transitions) Variable oxidation states and their stabilities, and calculation of spin-only magnetic moment , Interstitial compounds, alloy formation.

**f- Block elements**: Lanthanide contraction and its consequences Variable oxidation states** , ** (mainly lanthanides) General characteristics and trends in properties of lanthanides .

**Coordination compounds**: Isomerism ,VBT, Nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds ,Hybridization of mononuclear coordination compounds and geometries mononuclear coordination compounds, Magnetic properties, Werner’s theory ,CFT.

**Metals and metallurgy**: Occurrence of metals ,General methods of extraction involving chemical principles – thermodynamic, electrochemical and redox principles, Metallurgy of p-block element (emphasis on Al) , General operation stages involved in metallurgical operation , Metallurgy of Fe-triad (more emphasis on Fe metallurgy). Metallurgy of coinage metals (Cu, Ag with more emphasis on Cu) and their Refining

**ORGANIC CHEMISTRY**

**Basic concepts:**

Hybridisations of carbon, hyperconjugation, Sigma and pi-bonds, Representation of organic compounds, Shapes of simple organic molecules, electromeric effect, resonance effect, Inductive effect, Determination of empirical and molecular formulae (only combustion method), Keto-enol tautomerism , Acidity and basicity of organic acids and bases , Hydrogen bond - definition and effect on physical properties of alcohols and carboxylic acids, Methods of purification of compounds

Reactive intermediates : structure and stability of - carbocation, carbanion and free radical, Formation, Homolytic and heterolytic bond cleavages

Isomerism: Geometrical isomerism, Racemic mixture, Chirality Structural and stereoisomerism, Conformations of ethane and butane (Newman projections) ,Optical isomerism of compounds containing up to two asymmetric centres, Enatiomers , ( R, S and E, Z nomenclature excluded)

Nomenclature: IUPAC of only hydrocarbons, mono- functional and bi-functional compounds , including benzene derivatives , IUPAC nomenclature of simple organic compounds.

Alkanes: Wurtz reaction, Preparation, Combustion and halogenation of alkanes, properties and reactions ,Idea of homologous series , Mechanism of photo-halogenation

Alkenes and Alkynes: Acid catalysed hydration of alkenes and alkynes (excluding the stereochemistry), Ozonolysis , Makownikoff rule, Reduction of alkenes and alkynes, Addition reactions of alkynes, ,Isomerization, Preparation, properties and reactions of alkenes and alkynes, Acidity of alkynes , Reactions of alkenes with KMnO4 and Sulphuric acid , Preparation of alkenes and alkynes by elimination reactions (excluding stereochemistry). Electrophilic addition reactions of alkenes with X2, HX, HOX and H2O (X=halogen),Peroxide effect , Polymerization of alkenes ,Metal acetylides

**Aromatic compounds:** Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation (No mechanism) Huckel theory of aromaticity, Aromaticity. Structure of benzene. Isomerism in substituted benzenes. Electrophilic substitution reaction on benzene- General mechanism , Electrophilic substitution reactions of benzene and substituted benzenes - halogenation, nitration, sulphonation, Orientating influence of substituents in electrophilic substitution reaction of monosubstituted benzenes

**Haloalkanes (Alkyl halides):** alcohols, Halogen exchange reaction, olefins , Nucleophilic substitution reactions of alkyl halides with different nucleophilic species, Grignard reagents and their reaction with aldehydes/ketones/esters/nitriles, SN1 and SN2 reactions with mechanism, Preparation from alkanes, Polyhalogen compounds

**Haloarenes:** (excluding Benzyne mechanism and Cine substitution) Nucleophilic aromatic substituted haloarenes and haloarenes

**Alcohols:** Hydroboration reaction ,Identification of p-, sec- and tert- alcohols , Dehydration, oxidation to aldehydes and ketones. Reaction with sodium, Uses of methanol and ethanol , Preparation from – olefinscarboxylic acids, aldehydes/ketones, , alkyl halides, phosphorus halides, ZnCl2/ HX, H2SO4 .

**Phenols:** preparation from cumene and benzene sulphonic acid. Acidity , Reimer-Tieman reaction, Kolbe reaction , Preparation of phenol from halobenzene , Reactions of phenols - halogenation, nitration, sulphonation, with Zn

**Ethers:** Reaction with H2O, HX , dehydration of alcohols ,Preparation by Williamson's Synthesis.

**Aldehydes and Ketones** : Aldol condensation, Reactions with – Alcohols, HCN, NaHSO3. Reactions- oxidation, Cannizzaro reaction, oxime and hydrazone formation , Haloform reaction , Tests to distinguish aldehydes and ketones , Perkin reaction ,Preparation of aldehydes and ketones from –olefins, acid chlorides, arylalkanes, nitriles, esters, Friedel-Crafts reaction Alcohols, reduction.

**Carboxylic acids** - . Preparation of acids , Decarboxylation , halogens, Reactions of acids with - thionyl chloride, ammonia, alkalis, metals P-halides, reducing agents , Preparation of amides, acid chlorides, esters and anhydrides. ester hydrolysis , Acidity and structure-acidity relationship , Halogenation

**Amines **- Identification of p-, sec- and tert-amines , Basicity and structure-basicity relationship , Reaction with – Acids, alkylating agents, acylating agents Diazotization of aromatic primary amines - Reactions of aromatic diazonium salts - azo coupling reaction, , Diazotization of aromatic primary amines, Sandmeyer and related reactions.,Preparation of amines from -nitro compounds, nitriles, amides, haloalkanes/aromatic compounds, nitrous acid ,Carbylamine reaction of p-amines.

**Carbohydrate:** hydroxylamine, HI structure of glucose ,Classification of carbohydrates.mono- and di- saccharides (glucose and sucrose) , Glycoside formation and hydrolysis of sucrose ,Characteristic tests , Reactions of glucose- Oxidation, reduction, , acetic anhydride ,Structures of - Sucrose, maltose, starch and cellulose , Cyclic structure of glucose.

**Amino acids and proteins:** . Peptide bond, α-amino acids , Denaturation of proteins, Characteristic tests ,Separation of amino acids using physical properties, Enzymes , General structure of peptides and proteins.

**Polymers:** Classification , Polythene, polyesters, rubber – natural and synthetic ,Homo and co-polymers, Bakelite, Addition and condensation polymerizations ,nylons, melamine-formaldehyde.

Algebra Algebra of complex numbers, addition, multiplication, conjugation, polar representation, properties of modulus and principal argument, triangle inequality, cube roots of unity, geometric interpretations.

Quadratic equations with real coefficients, Logarithms and their properties, computation of probability of events using permutations and combinations,formation of quadratic equations with given roots, relations between roots and coefficients solutions of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables , symmetric functions of roots.

Arithmetic, Permutations and combinations, geometric and harmonic progressions, arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means, sums of finite arithmetic and geometric progressions, infinite geometric series, Addition and multiplication rules of probability, conditional probability, Bayes Theorem, , symmetric and skew-symmetric matrices and their properties, independence of events, Binomial theorem for positive integral index, properties of binomial coefficients. Matrices as a rectangular array of real numbers, equality of matrices, addition, multiplication by a scalar and product of matrices, transpose of a matrix, determinant of a square matrix of order up to three, inverse of a square matrix of order up to three, properties of these matrix operations, diagonal, sums of squares and cubes of the first n natural numbers.

**Trigonometry**

Trigonometric functions, Their periodicity and graphs, , half-angle formula and the area of a triangle, general solution of trigonometric equations , Relations between sides and angles of a triangle, addition and subtraction formulae, formulae involving multiple and sub-multiple angles, sine rule, cosine ruleinverse trigonometric functions (principal value only).

Analytical geometry

**Three dimensions** - equation of a plane, Direction cosines and direction ratios, distance of a point from a plane , equation of a straight line in space.

**Two dimensions** - Shift of origin, , orthocentre, incentre, distance between two points Cartesian coordinates, section formulae, angle between two lines, distance of a point from a line, Equation of a straight line in various forms ,equation of the bisector of the angle between two lines, concurrency of lines, Lines through the point of intersection of two given lines, Centroid and circumcentre of a triangle.

Equations of tangent, normal and chord , Equation of a circle in various forms ,Parametric equations of a circle, equation of a circle through the points of intersection of two circles and those of a circle and a straight line , intersection of a circle with a straight line or a circle parametric equations, Locus Problems ,ellipse and hyperbola in standard form, their foci, directrices and eccentricity, Equations of a parabola, equations of tangent and normal.

**Differential calculus: **Absolute value, onto and one-to-one functions, L’Hospital rule for evaluation of limits of functions, sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions, difference, product and quotient of two functions,Limit and continuity of a function, Real valued functions of a real variable, polynomial, rational, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions , composite functions, maximum and minimum values of a function.

Even and odd functions, Derivative of a function, inverse of a function, continuity of composite functions, limit and continuity of the sum, intermediate value property of continuous functions, derivative of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions, tangents and normals, chain rule, rational, trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions.

Derivatives of implicit functions, derivatives up to order two, geometrical interpretation of the derivative, increasing and decreasing functions, derivatives of polynomial, Rolle’s Theorem and Lagrange’s Mean Value Theorem.

**Integral calculus**

Formation of ordinary differential equations, indefinite integrals of standard functions, separation of variables method , linear first order differential equations , integration by the methods of substitution and partial fractions, definite integrals and their properties , Integration by parts, Integration as the inverse process of differentiation, , Fundamental Theorem of Integral Calculus ,application of definite integrals to the determination of areas involving simple curves ,solution of homogeneous differential equations .

**Vectors** : Scalar triple products and their geometrical interpretations, scalar multiplication, Addition of vectors, dot and cross products

**General: **Dimensional analysis , Units and dimensions , significant figures , least count, measurement of length, time, mass, temperature, potential difference, Methods of measurement (Direct, Indirect, Null) , current and resistance

Design of some simple experiments, such as: i) Searle's method to determine Young's modulus, Graphical representation and interpretation of data ii) determination of 'g' by simple pendulum, iii) speed of sound using resonance tube, Errors in the measurements and error analysis iv) coefficient of friction using angle of repose, , I-V characteristic curve for p-n junction in forward and reverse bias v) determination of focal length of a convex lens by plotting a graph between 'u' and 'v', vi) refractive index of material of prism using the method of minimum deviation, vii) verification of Ohm's law, viii) resistance of galvanometer using half deflection method, ix) specific heat of a liquid using calorimeter.

**Mechanics :**projectiles. Uniform circular motion. Relative velocity. Newton’s laws of motion. Inertial and uniformly accelerated (linear only) frames of reference ,Kinetic and potential energy , Impulse,

Systems of particles**, **Kinematics in one and two dimensions (Cartesian coordinates only), Motion of planets and satellites in circular orbits, Centre of mass and its motion, Static and dynamic friction, Centre of gravity.

Centripetal acceleration and centrifugal force , Law of gravitation , Gravitational potential and field , Conservation of linear momentum and mechanical energy , Elastic and inelastic collisions ,Acceleration due to gravity , Escape velocity , Linear and circular simple harmonic motion , Work and power

Rigid body, Stoke’s and Poiseuille’s law, moment of inertia, moment of inertia of uniform bodies with simple geometrical shapes. Angular momentum, Torque , Equilibrium of rigid bodies , parallel and perpendicular axes theorems, Young’s modulus, Conservation of angular momentum , Reynolds number , Buoyancy , Surface energy and surface tension, Rolling without slipping of rings, cylinders and spheres. Collision of point masses with rigid bodies.

Hooke’s law and stress – . Elastic limit,strain relations , plastic deformation, bulk and shear moduli.

Pressure in a fluid, Dynamics of rigid bodies with fixed axis of rotation, Pascal’s law, capillary rise. Viscosity –Terminal velocity, Bernoulli’s theorem , Qualitative understanding of turbulence ,Streamline flow, equation of continuity.

**Sound and mechanical waves**

longitudinal and transverse waves, Resonance (qualitative understanding) ,superposition of waves. Progressive and stationary waves , Plane wave motion, Beats ,Vibration of strings and air columns ,Speed of sound in gases. Doppler effect

**Thermal physics**

Blackbody radiation - absorptive and emissive powers ,liquids and gases. Calorimetry, Stefan’s law , latent heat. Heat conduction in one dimension.. Newton’s law of cooling , Elementary concepts of convection and radiation , Ideal gas laws. Thermal expansion of solids, Isothermal and adiabatic processes, bulk modulus of gases ,First and second law of thermodynamics and its applications (only for ideal gases) , Equivalence of heat and work , Entropy , Specific heats (CV and CP for monoatomic and diatomic gases) , Kirchhoff’s law , Wien’s displacement law

**Electricity and Magnetism:** Coulomb’s law , Electrical potential energy of a system of point charges and of electrical dipoles in a uniform electrostatic field; Electric field lines , Electric field and potential, Flux of electric field ,such as to find field due to infinitely long straight wire , Gauss’s law and its application in simple cases , Capacitors in series and parallel , Series and parallel arrangements of resistances and cells

Capacitance - Calculation of capacitance with and without dielectrics ,uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell, Electric current Biot-Savart’s law and Ampere’s law, Magnetic moment of a current loop ,Energy stored in a capacitor.

Magnetic field near a current carrying straight wire, Ohm’s law, along the axis of a circular coil and inside a long straight solenoid. Force on a moving charge and on a current carrying wire in a uniform magnetic field , voltmeter, ammeter and their conversions

Effect of a uniform magnetic field on a current loop , Self and mutual inductance , Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications Heating effect of current , Moving coil galvanometer,

Electromagnetic induction - circuits with and A.C. Sources ,RC, LR and LC , voltmeter, ammeter and their conversions , Faraday’s law, Lenz’s law

**Modern physics**

Atomic nucleus , Binding energy and its calculation , Alpha, beta and gamma radiations , Characteristic and continuous X-rays, Law of radioactive decay , Photoelectric effect , Energy calculation in these processes ,Decay constant, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle,Half-life and mean life,Fission and fusion processes , Bohr’s theory of hydrogen like atoms ,Moseley’s law , de Broglie wavelength of matter waves.

**Optics**

Combination of mirrors and thin lenses ,Rectilinear propagation of light, Thin lenses , Wave nature of light - Huygen’s principle , interference limited to Young’s double slit experiment , Elementary idea of polarization – Brewster’s law and the law of Malus , Magnification ,Reflection and refraction at plane and spherical surfaces, Deviation and dispersion of light by a prism , Elementary idea of diffraction – Rayleigh criterion.

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